Howard Gardner

A professor of education and psychology at Harvard and a professor of neurology at Boston University, states that our culture has defined intelligence too narrowly. In his book Frames of Mind, he set forth his theory of "multiple intelligences". He suggests that there are at least eight intelligences worthy of being taken seriously as important modes of thought.


The Eight Intelligences are as follows:

Word Smart Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence or Word Smart is an ability to think in words and use language, either spoken or written, express and appreciate complex meanings.
Logical/Mathematical Intelligences or Math Smart is the ability to calculate, quantify, and carry out complex mathematical operation. It enables us to perceive relationships and connections, to use sequential reasoning skills and inductive and deductive thinking processes. Math Smart
Body Smart Body/Kinesthetic Intelligence or Body Smart is the ability to manipulate objects and use a variety of physical skills. This intelligence also involves a sense of timing, and the perfection of skills through mind - body union.
Music/Rhythmic Intelligence or Music Smart is the ability to recognize, create, reproduce, and reflect music. It includes the capacity to perceive, discriminate, transform, and express musical forms. Music Smart
People Smart Interpersonal Intelligence or People Smart is the ability to understand and interact effectively with others. It involves competent verbal and non-verbal communication, and the capacity to perceive and make distinctions in the moods, intentions, motivations, and feelings of other people.
Intrapersonal Intelligence or Self Smart is the ability to understand oneself - one's thoughts and feelings - and to use such knowledge in planning and directing one's life. Self Smart
Nature Smart Naturalist or Nature Smart is the ability to understand and recognize the importance of plants, animals, cloud, rocks and other natural things.
Spatial/Visual of Art Smart is the ability to in three dimensions. Core capacities of this intelligence include mental imagery, spatial reasoning, image manipulation, graphic and artistic skill, and an active imagination. Sailors, pilots, sculptors painters, and architects all exhibit spatial intelligence. Art Smart